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04400 Mortar Joints




1. Work included

The work under this contract shall include all labor and material necessary to furnish and satisfactorily install the Cut Indiana Oolitic Limestone in accordance with the drawings and as hereinafter specified. 

2. Description of stone

All limestone specified or shown on drawings shall be Indiana Oolitic Limestone, as quarried in Lawrence, Monroe, and Owen Counties, Indiana. Stone shall be GRADE ----------COLOR------FINISH                             

3. Samples

The supplier or fabricator shall submit three (3) samples, 12’’ x12’’, for approval by the architect.  The samples shall in general be typical of the grade, color and finish specified. This sample and the standards established by the Indiana Limestone Institute shall form the basis of the contract agreement.

 3A. Job Site Mock-up

The job site mock up to be erected for approval and review by the architect and representatives of the owner.

 4. Standard practice

The architect reserves the right to approve the material supplier for cut stone before this portion of the work isawarded.  Stone and workmanship quality shall be in accordance with Industry Standards and Practices as set forth by the Indiana Limestone Institute of America, Inc., Bedford, Indiana. The stone supplier shall be a member in good standing of that organization.

Approved supplier:

   Indiana Limestone Fabricators, Inc.
   2400 State Hwy. 43
   Spencer, IN. 47460
   T: 812-828-0701 f: 812-828-0704

5. Cutting and setting drawings

The cut stone supplier shall prepare and submit to the architect for approval, complete cutting and setting drawings for all of the cut Indiana Limestone work. Such drawings shall show in detail the sizes, sections, anddimensions of stone, the arrangement of joints and bonding, anchoring and other necessary details. All jointing as shown by the architect on the contract drawings shall be followed, unless modifications are agreed upon in writing, or indicated upon the approved shop drawings. If the contract drawings do not show the intent of the jointing, it will be the fabricator’s responsibility to establish the jointing in accordance with industry standards and practices. The general contractor shall furnish all field dimensions necessary for fabrication.

3-D Computer models to be submitted to the architect of pediments and complex cut stone as required for approval by the architect. 

The cutting and setting drawings shall be based upon and follow the drawings and full size details prepared by the architect except where it is agreed in writing or shown on the approved shop drawings that changes be made. Each stone indicated on the setting drawings shall bear the corresponding number marked on an unexposed surface.  

Provision for the anchoring, dowelling, and cramping of work, in keeping with standard practices, and for the support of stone by shelf angles and loose steel, etc., when required, shall be clearly indicated on the cutting and setting drawings.

 6. CNC Machining, carving and computer models

 All carving shall be done by CNC machinery and skilled carvers in a correct and artistic manner, in strict accordance with the spirit and intent of the approved shaded drawings, or from computer models  approved by the architect. 

7. Cutting

All stone shall be cut accurately to shape and dimensions and full to the square, with jointing as shown on approved drawings. All exposed faces shall be dressed true. Beds and joints shall be at right angles to the face, and joints shall have a uniform thickness of 3/8unless otherwise shown or noted on drawings.

 Reglets for flashing, etc., shall be cut in the stone where so indicated on the drawings.  

Molded work shall be carefully executed from full size details supplied by architect, and must match satisfactorily at joints. All exposed arrises shall be in true alignment and slightly eased to prevent snipping. 

8. Repairing damaged stone

Repair of stone is an accepted practice and will be permitted.  Some chipping is expected; repair of small chips is not required if it does not detract from the overall appearance of the work, or impair the effectiveness of the mortar or sealant. The criteria for acceptance of chips and repairs will be per standards and practices of the industry unless other criteria are mutually agreed upon by the limestone supplier and the architect. 

09.Back-checking and fitting to structure or frame

Stone coming in contact with structural work shall be back-checked as indicated on the approved shop drawings.  Stones resting on structural work shall have beds shaped to fit the supports as required. 

Maintain a minimum of 1between stone backs and adjacent structure. (Note: many bolted connections will require more space than this; 2space may be more desirable. Large-scale details should illustrate and control these conditions.) 

10. Cutting for anchoring, supporting, and lifting devices

Holes and sinkages shall be cut in stones for all anchors, cramps, dowels and other tie-back and support devices per industry standard practice and/or approved shop drawings. However, expansion anchor holes shall be drilled at jobsite by mason or erector to facilitate alignment.  

No holes or sinkages will be provided for contractor’s handling devices unless arrangement for this service is made by the contractor with the stone supplier.  

Note: It is not recommended that Lewis pins be used for stones less than 31/2thickness. 

11. Cutting and drilling for other Trades

Any miscellaneous cutting and drilling of stone necessary to accommodate other trades will be done by the cut stone fabricator only when necessary information is furnished in time to be shown on their shop drawings and details, and when work can be executed before fabrication. Cutting and fitting, due to jobsite conditions, will be the responsibility of the general contractor. 

Incidental cutting such as for window frame clips, etc., which is normally not considered to be the responsibility of the stone supplier, will be provided only by arrangement by the contractor with the stone supplier.

12. Loading and shipment

The cut Indiana Limestone shall be carefully packed for transportation with exercise of all customary and reasonable precautions against damage in transit. All cut stone under this contract shall be loaded and shipped in the sequence and quantities mutually agreed upon by the general contractor or erector and the material supplier.

   The cut stone shall be shrink wrapped and tagged with contents of each individual package. 

13. Unloading and storage at jobsite

All stone shall be received and unloaded at the site with necessary care in handling to avoid damaging or soiling.

Stone shall be stored clear of the ground on nonstaining skids (cypress, white pine, poplar, or yellow pine without an excessive amount of resin). Chemically treated wood should not be used. DO NOT use chestnut, walnut, oak, fir, and other woods containing tannin. 

Stone shall be covered with waterproof paper, clean canvas or polyethylene.



14. Work included

The work under this contract shall include all labor and materials necessary for the satisfactory installation of cut Indiana Limestone in accordance with the provisions set out herein. 

15. Setting mortar

Setting mortar shall be ASTM C-270 Type N (indicate other type if desired) composed of (select:) one part portland cement, one part mason’s lime, and six parts sand mixed with potable water (or:) one part masonry cement and two and three-fourths part sand mixed with potable water. 

16. Pointing mortar

Pointing mortar shall be composed of one part (white or other) portland cement, one part hydrated lime, and six parts white sand passing a #16 sieve. 

17. Expansion joints

Joints shall be adequate to allow for thermal and structural differential movement. Filler material for these joints shall be nonstaining.

18. Weeps

Plastic or other weep tubes, or felt wicks, shall be placed in joints where moisture may accumulate within the wall, such as at base of cavity, continuous angles, flashing, etc., or as shown on architectural drawings.  

19. Stone anchors and attachments

Provide anchors and attachments of type and size required to support the stonework fabricated from the following metals for conditions indicated below: 

  Stainless Steel, AISI Type 304 or 316, for anchors and expansion bolts embedded within the stone. 

  Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel as follows: 

   Galvanized malleable iron for adjustable inserts embedded in the concrete structure. 

   For anchor bolts, nuts and washers not in direct contact with stone; comply with ASTM A 307, Grade A, for material and ASTM C 153, Class C, for galvanizing. 

   For steel plates, shapes and bars not in direct contact with stone; comply with ASTM A 36 for materials    and ASTM A 123 for galvanizing.  

   For expansion bolts not in direct contact with stone use zinc plated or cadmium plated bolts with stainless steel expansion clips.  

   For steel angles supporting limestone; comply with ASTM A 36 for materials and ASTM A 123 for    galvanizing.  Supports protected with one shop coat of zinc-rich or other rust-inhibiting paint, and one job coat of similar, compatible paint, may be used at the discretion of the architect. 

20. Dampproofing for stain prevention:

Where indicated on drawings, coatings of either (a) cementitious waterproof stone backing or (b) bituminous dampproofing shall be applied on backs, beds, and joints of all stones used at grade. Dampproof all adjacent concrete surfaces on which limestone will rest, including concrete or cmu haunches and ledges, as well as support angles. 

A. Dampproof unexposed surfaces of stone to at least 1-0above grade. 

B. Dampproof joints only to within 1of finished surfaces when using bituminous or asphaltic solutions.

C. Stones extending below grade shall be dampproofed as above, and in addition shall be dampproofed to the level of grade on their face surfaces which are covered. 

D. Cementitious coatings must be allowed to cure before treated stone is set. Due care must be exercised in handling all dampproofed stone to avoid chipping or off-setting. 

21. Setting 

A. All Indiana Limestone shall be set accurately in strict accordance with the contract and shop drawings. 

B. When necessary, before setting in the wall, all stones shall be thoroughly cleaned on all exposed surfaces by washing with fiber brush and soap powder, followed by a thorough drenching with clear water. 

C. All stone joint surfaces not thoroughly wet shall be drenched with clear water just prior to setting. 

D. Except as otherwise specially noted, every stone shall be set in full beds of mortar with all vertical joints slushed full. Completely fill all anchor, dowel, and similar holes. Unless otherwise noted, all bed and joint widths shall be 3/8. 

E. Lead or plastic setting pads shall be placed under heavy stones, column drums, etc., in same thickness as joint, and in sufficient quantity to avoid squeezing mortar out. Heavy stones or projecting courses shall not be set until mortar in courses below has hardened sufficiently to avoid squeezing. 

F. Joints can be tooled when initial set has occurred, or raked out 1and pointed later. If pointed with sealant, the raked depth and sealant applications shall conform to manufacturer’s instructions. (See p. 25.) 

G. Projecting stones shall be securely propped or anchored until the wall above is set. 

H. Only the ends of lugged sills and steps shall be embedded in mortar. Balance of joint shall be left open until finally pointed. 

I. All cornice, copings, projecting belt courses, other projecting courses, steps, and platforms (in general, all stone areas either partially or totally horizontal) should be set with unfilled vertical joints. After setting, insert properly sized backup material or backer rod to proper depth, and gun in sealant. (See p. 25 and the following specification section for more information on sealant joints.)

J. In cold weather, International Masonry Industry All-Weather Council recommendations for setting from 40 degrees to 20 degrees F shall be followed, except that no additives shall be used in the setting mortar, and below 20 degrees F all work shall be done in heated enclosures.

 22. Protection of finished work

A. Receipt, storage, and protection of cut stonework prior to, during and subsequent to installation shall be the responsibility of the mason contractor. 

B. During construction, tops of walls shall be carefully covered at night, and especially during any precipitation or other inclement weather. 

C. At all times, walls shall be adequately protected from droppings. 

D. Whenever necessary, substantial wooden covering shall be placed to protect the stonework. Nonstaining building paper or membrane shall be used under the wood. Maintain all covering until removed to permit final clearing of the stonework.

23. Cleaning

The stone shall be washed with fiber brushes, mild soap powder or detergent and clean water or approved mechanical cleaning process.

Special consideration and protection shall be provided when brickwork is cleaned above the limestone. Strong acid compounds used for cleaning brick will burn and discolor the limestone.

se of sand blasting, wire brushes or acids will only be permitted under special circumstances, approved by architect. 


1.3 system description: 

1.3.1 General: Design, fabricate, and install stonework to withstand normal loads from wind, gravity, movement of building structure, and thermally induced movement, as well as to resist deterioration under conditions of normal use including exposure to weather, without failure. 

1.3.2 Performance Requirements—General: The cladding requirements shown by the general stone details are intended to establish basic dimensions of units or modules, plus profiles and sight lines for the stonework. Within these limitations, the contractor shall be responsible for the design of the stonework, and shall request approval of, and make whatever modifications and additions to the details as may be required to fulfill the performance requirements. The visual concept shall be maintained as shown, including profiles and alignment of components. 

The requirements for the stone support and anchorage as shown by the details are intended to establish the

basic intent of the stone anchorage system. The contractor shall be responsible for the design of the support and anchorage system and shall request approval of, and make whatever modifications and additions to the details as may be required to fulfill the performance requirements. Final shapes and locations shall be as designed by a registered professional engineer.


Engineering Calculations: This engineer shall be a registered professional engineer experienced in cladding

design to design the cladding support and retention system. The system shall include all items required to

connect the stone cladding to the structure (or secondary framing) as shown and detailed on the structural and architectural drawings. The cladding engineer shall be registered in the state of Indiana and shall prepare engineering calculations for the justification of all principal stonework, units, fasteners, and anchorage components for compliance with the criteria established in the performance requirements of this section.

The calculations shall be submitted to the architect for review and approval. After review, revisions, and final

approval, the cladding engineer shall certify a record copy of the calculations with professional engineer’s

stamp or seal.  


Based on the design loads, material properties, and safety factors (all as defined in this section), the calculations shall include, as a minimum, the following information:


   Stone loads, stresses, and safety factors.

   Support and anchorage loads, stresses, safety factors, design loads, and allowable loads.


   Stone thicknesses.

   Support and anchorage sizes.

   Drawings of all support and anchorage items in 
sufficient detail for fabrication and for the detailing and

   completion of the shop drawings as prepared by the stone fabricator. The cladding engineer shall review

   all stone shop drawings prepared by stone installer or fabricator.


1.3.3 Performance Requirements—Stone:


Physical Properties: The Indiana Limestone physical properties shall meet or exceed the values listed in the

Indiana Limestone Institute of America, Inc. Handbook (ILIA), latest edition.


Safety Factors—Stone: Safety factors for Indiana Limestone shall be not less than as listed in the Technote on Safety Factors, as published by ILIA.


Connections and Attachments for Limestone: Support and Retention Steel: All steel shapes, plates and straps

shall be designed to carry the design loads with safety factors and allowable stresses in accordance with the

American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. (AISC) except that steel supports carrying gravity loads shall

be stressed not more than 50% of the yield stress in bending.


Connections into the Stone: Expansion bolts, straps, hooks, anchors, and other devices shall be designed to

carry the design loads with safety factors not less than listed in ILIA Technote on Safety Factors.


Attachments to the Structure: Connections and attachments to the structure or secondary framing shall be designed to carry the design loads with safety factors or allowable stresses in accordance with the following:


   Welds: Structural Welding Code (AWS D1.1 and AISC). 


   Expansion Bolts: Per ICBO evaluation report for the specific bolt to be used. If an ICBO report is not

   available, use not less than the following:


   Safety Factors:


      Into 4,000 psi concrete—4 to 1


     Into grouted CMU—6 to 1

The combined load factor for combined tension and 
shear shall satisfy the ILIA Technote on Safety   



   Bolts: AISC.


   Concrete Embedded (Cast-in) items: PCI or manufacturer’s recommendations, whichever is more  

   conservative.  The safety factor shall be not less than 4 to 1 based on concrete failure.


   Design Loads: All cladding and cladding attachments shall be designed to carry the following design loads

   with safety factors not less than specified in this section:


   Wind Loads: (Latest Edition) UBC (or applicable code or wind tunnel test results).


   Seismic Loads: Per code where applicable.


   Vertical Loads:


      Dead Loads: Actual computed weight of cladding.


      Live Loads: (Latest Edition) UBC (or applicable code).


Provisions for Fabrication and Erection Tolerances:

Design, detail and fabricate connections to provide allowance for fabrication tolerances, erection tolerances,

and structural deflections.


   Concrete structural fabrication and erection tolerances are specified in Division-3 section “Concrete



   Structural steel fabrication and erection tolerances are specified in Division-5 section “Structural Steel.”


Control of Corrosion: Prevent galvanic and other forms of corrosion by insulating metals and other materials

from direct contact with non-compatible materials, or by suitable coating.







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